It looks as though the Church of England now has a new buzz word. In the past few years the buzz word has been ‘good disagreement’ but now it appears to be ‘radical inclusion.’ In his speech at the conclusion of the debate in General Synod on the House of Bishops report on Marriage and Sexual Relationships after the Shared Conversations the Archbishop of Canterbury talked about the need for ‘a radical new Christian inclusion.’ The same phrase was then used by the Archbishops of Canterbury and York in their letter issued in response to the debate.
One of the problems with the term ‘good disagreement’ was that its meaning was never formally defined and so it was difficult to be sure what it actually meant. In a similar fashion the Archbishops have not given a clear definition of ‘a radical new Christian inclusion’ either, but in their letter they appear to link it to a way forward for the Church of England that is ‘about love, joy and celebration of our common humanity; of our creation in the image of God, of our belonging to Christ – all of us, without exception, without exclusion.’
There are three problems with this view of the meaning of radical inclusion. First, it mentions the creation of human beings in the image of God, but passes over the fact that human beings are also fallen. Secondly, it talks about our belonging to Christ, but is silent about what this belonging involves. Thirdly, by linking both under the rubric of our ‘common humanity,’ it suggests that all human beings without exception are not only created by God, but also belong to Christ (which is not true).
In the remainder of this blog I shall set out an alternative Anglican account of inclusion that avoids these problems, drawing on the teaching of the Thirty Nine Articles and other authorised Anglican sources, as well as the work of Martin Luther. I shall also look at how this alternative account of inclusion relates to the issue of those who experience same sex attraction.
All human beings are included in the effects of the Fall.
The starting point for this alternative account of inclusion is the fact that all human beings without exception are included in the effects of the Fall. Genesis 1:26-27 tells us that human beings have been created in the ‘image and likeness’ of God. This means that they are called to reflect the glory of God by living in obedience to God and ruling over the world on his behalf. However, as the biblical story from Genesis 3 onwards tells us, the disobedience of the first human beings means that all human beings are by nature incapable of fulfilling this calling.
The technical theological term for the effects of this act of disobedience by the first human beings is ‘original sin,’ which is described by Article IX the Thirty Nine Articles as:
‘… the fault and corruption of the nature of every man that naturally is engendered of the offspring of Adam, whereby man is very far gone from original righteousness, and is of his own nature inclined to evil, so that the flesh lusteth always contrary to the spirit; and therefore in every person born into this world, it deserveth God’s wrath and damnation. And this infection of nature doth remain, yea, in them that are regenerated, whereby the lust of the flesh, called in Greek φρόνημα σαρκὸς (which some do expound the wisdom, some sensuality, some the affection, some the desire of the flesh), is not subject to the law of God. And although there is no condemnation for them that believe and are baptized, yet the Apostle doth confess that concupiscence and lust hath itself the nature of sin.’
The biblical basis for what is said in this article is the witness to universal human sinfulness borne by a range of biblical texts such as Genesis 8:21, Psalm 14:1-3, Ecclesiastes 7:20, Isaiah 53:6, Romans 3:23 and Ephesians 2:3 understood in the light of the teaching of St. Paul in Romans 5:12-21 and 1 Corinthians 15:21-22, passages which declare that the disobedience of Adam led to sin and therefore death spreading to all his descendants.
The key point made by the article on the basis of such texts is that Adam’s sin means that all human beings, even baptised Christian believers, are by nature inclined to evil, with the result that they are in a state of continual rebellion against the promptings of the Spirit and are incapable of giving God the loving obedience that he deserves. As the general confession in the services of Morning and Evening Prayer in the Book of Common Prayer puts it:
‘We have erred, and strayed from thy ways like lost sheep, we have followed too much the devices and desires of our own hearts, we have offended against thy holy laws, we have left undone those things which we ought to have done, and we have done those things which we ought not to have done, and there is no health in us.’
The important point made in this general confession is that the nature of original sin is that our fallen nature leads to our having sinful desires and it is as we follow the promptings of these sinful desires that we commit specific acts of sin. This toxic combination of our fallen nature, our sinful desires and our sinful acts means that we are radically alienated from God. As Article IX indicates, by reason of original sin we all deserve God’s ‘wrath and condemnation.’ Or, as St. Paul puts it in Ephesians 2:3, we are by nature ‘children of wrath.’
All need the righteousness that comes through faith.
None of us can put ourselves in the right with God through our own efforts because the effects of original sin mean that everything we do falls short of what God requires of us. As the homily ‘Of the Misery of All Mankind’ in the First Book of Homilies declares:
‘For truly there be imperfections in our best works: we do not love God so much, as we ought to do, with all our heart, mind, and power; we do not fear God so much, as we ought to do; we do not pray to God, but with great and many imperfections; we give, forgive, believe, love, and hope unperfectly; we speak, think, and do unperfectly; we fight against the devil, the world, and the flesh unperfectly.’
However, in God’s great mercy, what we cannot do for ourselves God does for us. In the words of St. Paul: ‘there is no distinction; since all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, they are justified by his grace as a gift through the redemption which in Christ Jesus’ (Romans 3:22-24). Because, and only because, Jesus lived, died and rose on our behalf we are accounted righteous by God (‘justified’). We are, that is to say, viewed by God as the people we ought to be, but in ourselves are not. If we ask how this is possible the answer is, as Martin Luther explains in 1520 tract The Freedom of a Christian, that through faith we are united to Christ:
‘The third incomparable grace of faith is this, that it unites the soul to Christ, as the wife to the husband; by which mystery, as the Apostle teaches, Christ and the soul are made one flesh [Ephesians 5:31-32]. Now if they are one flesh, and if a true marriage – nay, by far the most perfect of all marriages – is accomplished between them (for human marriages are but feeble types of this one great marriage), then it follows that all they have becomes theirs in common, as well good things as evil things; so that whatsoever Christ possesses, that the believing soul may take to itself and boast of as its own, and whatever belongs to the soul, that Christ claims as his.
If we compare these possessions, we shall see how inestimable is the gain. Christ is full of grace, life, and salvation; the soul is full of sin, death, and condemnation. Let faith step in, and then sin, death, and hell will belong to Christ, and grace, life, and salvation to the soul. For, if he is a husband, he must needs take to himself that which is his wife’s, and, at the same time, impart to his wife that which is his. For, in giving her his own body and himself, how can he but give her all that is his? And, in taking to himself the body of his wife, how can he but take to himself all that is hers?
In this is displayed the delightful sight, not only of communion, but of a prosperous warfare, of victory, salvation, and redemption. For since Christ is God and man, and is such a person as neither has sinned, nor dies, nor is condemned,–nay, cannot sin, die, or be condemned; and since his righteousness, life, and salvation are invincible, eternal, and almighty; when, I say, such a person, by the wedding-ring of faith, takes a share in the sins, death, and hell of his wife, nay, makes them his own, and deals with them no otherwise than as if they were his, and as if he himself had sinned; and when he suffers, dies, and descends to hell, that he may overcome all things, since sin, death, and hell cannot swallow him up, they must needs be swallowed up by him in stupendous conflict. For his righteousness rises above the sins of all men; his life is more powerful than all death; his salvation is more unconquerable than all hell. Thus the believing soul, by the pledge of its faith in Christ, becomes free from all sin, fearless of death, safe from hell, and endowed with the eternal righteousness, life, and salvation of its husband Christ.’
In summary, what this means is that, in the words of Article XI: ‘We are accounted righteous before God, only for the merit of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ by Faith, and not for our own works or deservings’ and the reason that this is the case is that through faith we belong to Christ and as a consequence all our sin is his and all his righteousness is ours.
Baptism comes into the picture as the sacramental means by which we express our faith (or, in the case of infant baptism, by which faith is expressed on our behalf) and through which we receive the blessings of faith. That is why in the New Testament faith and baptism belong inextricably together. We can see this, for instance, in Galatians 3:26-27 where St. Paul says in verse 26 ‘for in Christ Jesus you are all sons of God, through faith’ and then develops the same point in verse 27 by saying ‘for as many of you as were baptized have put on Christ.’ We can also see it in Romans 4-6 where the discussion of the benefits of faith in chapters 4 and 5 leads into the discussion of the benefits and implications of baptism in chapter 6 and what links all three chapters is a common concern with the question of how we receive and respond rightly to the grace of God that has been given to us in Jesus Christ.
All need to produce the fruit of good works.
Although, as has already been said, no good works that we can perform are capable of making us righteous before God this does not mean that performing good works, that is to say, striving to act in the way that God requires, does not matter. On the contrary good works do matter and are an indispensable sign that we possess genuine faith in Christ.
In the words of Article XII:
‘Albeit that good works, which are the fruits of faith and follow after justification, cannot put away our sins and endure the severity of God’s judgement, yet are they pleasing and acceptable to God in Christ, and do spring out necessarily of a true and lively faith, insomuch that by them a lively faith may be as evidently known as a tree discerned by the fruit.’
How do we know whether we have genuine faith? As Jesus says in Matthew 12:33 ‘a tree is known by its fruit.’ If we have real faith in Christ we shall want to do what God requires and when we act upon this desire in the power of the Spirit (Romans 8:4) what we do is acceptable to God as the fruit of our relationship with Christ even though in itself it will necessarily remain imperfect. Conversely, if we do not desire to do what God requires and consequently do not produce good works it follows that our faith is not genuine.
To quote the ‘Short declaration of the true, lively and Christian faith’ in the First book of Homilies:
‘If these fruits do not follow, we do but mock with God, deceive ourselves and also other men. Well may we bear the name of Christian men, but we do lack the true faith that doth belong thereunto. For true faith doth ever bring forth good works; as St. James saith. ‘Show me thy faith by thy deeds’ (James 2:18). Thy deeds and works must be an open testimonial of thy faith; otherwise thy faith, being without good works, is but the devil’s faith, the faith of the wicked, a phantasy of faith, and not a true Christian faith.’
How does this relate to the issue of same sex attraction?
The account of inclusion just given says that:
- All human beings are created in the image and likeness of God;
- All human beings are affected by original sin and are therefore alienated from God because of their fallen desires and the sinful actions that flow from them;
- The way in which all human beings can have a right relationship with God is through faith in Christ;
- Genuine faith in Christ always shows itself in the performance of good works.
What this account means In relation to those people who have same sex attraction, and who may engage in same sex activity as a result, is that:
- Just like all other people they have the inestimable dignity of having being created in the image and likeness of God and being called to live in obedience to him.
- Just like all other people they are affected by the fall and as a result they have fallen desires and perform sinful acts. This is true in the area of their sexuality in so far as they desire to have sex with a member of their own sex or actually do so (Romans 1:26-27), but it is equally true in all other areas of their life.
- Just like all other people the way they can have a right relationship with God is through faith in Christ by means of which they belong to Christ and his righteousness becomes theirs;
- Just like all other people they need to manifest their faith in Christ through performing good works. This is true in all areas of their life, including their sexuality, and in the case of their sexuality it means that they, like all other people, need to adhere to a pattern of sexual discipline involving either faithfulness within (heterosexual) marriage or abstinence outside it since this is what accords with the way God has created human beings to live (see Genesis 1-2).
In terms of pastoral care of people with same sex attraction this means:
- Treating them with same dignity as all other human beings;
- Helping them to see how (like all other people) they are sinners in all areas of their lives (and not only their sexuality) and are therefore alienated from God and cannot save themselves;
- Pointing them to faith in Christ as the way of salvation;
- Explaining to them how, with the help of the Spirit, they need to manifest their faith in all areas of their lives (including their sexuality).
Down the centuries this is the way in which the Christian Church, including the Church of England, has traditionally approached the pastoral care of those sexually attracted to members of their own sex and it remains the right approach today. It does not see those with same sex attraction as somehow different from other people, but in a truly inclusive way it says that like all human beings they need the way of salvation provided through Christ and it stands open for them just as much as for anyone else.
M B Davie 19.2.17